If you are someone who often works or plays on a computer, you need to understand the parts of a computer and how they work. That will save you from a lot of problems during use. One effective way to gain experience is: build your own PC.
What do you need to prepare?
To be able to build your own PC set, you need to know how to make a list of what to buy. The components you need for a computer kit include: processor (CPU), motherboard (mainboard), hard drive (SSD/HDD), memory (RAM), graphics card (GPU), power and case (case). In addition, you also need to pay attention to peripheral devices such as monitor, keyboard, mouse, headset.
You have to make a list of devices to buy systematically and ensure compatibility, avoiding the phenomenon of “buying but not installing”. To do that, use the tool PCPartPicker. It allows you to select devices right on the website and make sure they all work well together.
If you need Vietnamese tools, you can use the feature Building computer configuration of Hanoicomputer.vn. However, the number of products will be more limited, depending on the warehouse of Hanoicomputer.vn.
CPU is the most important component, creating the overall power of the computer. So we will choose the CPU as a starting step.
First you need to know that there are currently two leading CPU manufacturers, Intel and AMD. Thuthuatphanmem.vn has a comparison article between these two firms. However, this is not really important, you should focus on learning about each product individually.
The point is that your choice must fit your needs and budget. Here are some basic recommendations for each CPU product line:
- AMD Athlon and Intel Pentium: affordable, suitable for basic computers with typing needs, media viewing and printing.
- Intel Core and AMD Ryzen: serves a wide range of audiences, from building office computers to game consoles.
- Intel Core X and AMD Ryzen Threadripper: high-end segment, for intense workloads such as video production, 3D modeling, and game streaming.
The Intel Core i5 series is a traditional, most basic chip for gaming computers. However, you also need to Read the specs carefully for each product. If you don’t have a lot of knowledge about parameters, you can based on CPU generation to judge power. Every year Intel releases new generation chips that are shown right on the product name. For example, Core i5-11400 (11th gen, due 2021) or Ryzen 5 5600G (zen 3, 2021 release).
Newer generation CPUs are often more powerful and expensive than older generations. Therefore, if you do not have the need to play games at the highest peak experience, you should choose the CPU of the previous generation, which is more affordable. Just a device like Core i5-9400 (9th generation) is enough to help you play a lot of heavy games.
In the CPU selection example, I will choose the AMD Ryzen 5 5600G with parameters including:
- Multiplier: 6
- Number of threads: 12
- Cache: 19MB
- Speed: 3.9 GHz – 4.4 GHz
- Heat dissipation capacity: 65W
- Socket: AM4
- Integrated graphics card: Radeon RX Vega 7
(You should learn the definition of each parameter to better understand the power of the CPU)
Basically, after you have selected the CPU, you just need to choose the motherboard that matches the socket. For example, the socket of the Ryzen 5 5600G is AM4 as mentioned above. You need to choose a motherboard with this same socket.
It sounds simple, but the motherboard is also an important part of the computer, so you have to consider a few other criteria:
- Design: ATX (universal), E-ATX and XL-ATX (large), Micro-ATX (small) or Mini-ITX (small, design different from ATX). You will need to estimate how many devices you will equip, and how much space you will occupy to choose the right design.
- PCIe: is the most important port you use to connect most components nowadays. The latest standards that are popular today are PCIe 3.0 and 4.0. Along with that are 4 types of sizes are x1, x4, x8, x16. Each motherboard will have a different number of ports with different locations. You need to consider your usage needs to choose the right motherboard for that need.
- Number of RAM slots: Today PCs are usually equipped with at least 4GB of RAM. Depending on your usage needs, 8GB of RAM is suitable for most general users and 16GB for more demanding users. Please determine in advance the need to use RAM in the present and in the future to buy a motherboard with enough slots.
- Hard drive connection port: Common connections for hard drives are ATA or SATA (currently SATA 3.0). You should learn about the types of hard drives you are about to buy and choose the right motherboard that supports that connection. There is also an increasingly popular connection type, NVMe via PCIe or gate M.2. Please note!
- In addition, you also need to pay attention to some other connections such as: USB, audio jack, image display port (if using integrated GPU), Wi-fi jack, etc. Buy a motherboard with all the connection ports. connection you need.
In this example, I will choose Mainboard Gigabyte B550M AORUS ELITE with the following parameters:
- PCIe 4.0
- Design m-ATX
- Dual NVMe PCIe 4.0 / 3.0 M.2 . connectors
- 1 x16″ PCIe slot
- Socket AM4
- 4 DDR4 RAM slots (up to 124GB)
- RAM bus speed: 2133MHz – 4733 (OC) MHz
- Some other technologies…
Choosing RAM is not too difficult. Normally, you should choose at least 2 RAM to enable dual channel mode on platforms like socket AM4 or LGA 1151.
- You must have figured it out RAM capacity which I will use, 4GB, 8GB or 16GB. 8GB is a safe number that most people choose.
- Next is DDR technology, you need to buy RAM with DDR technology suitable for the motherboard. As mentioned above, the mainboard that I chose supports 4 DDR4 RAM slots. Therefore, you can only choose to buy DDR4 RAM.
- Bus speed: You can only choose bus speed within the range that the motherboard supports. The higher the number, the faster the data transfer rate.
With the above selection criteria, I will give an example with RAM Kingston Fury Beast 16GB (2 sticks of 8GB) DDR4 3200MHz.
We have two popular types of hard drives, SSD and HDD, you can choose either one or a combination of both (if the motherboard supports enough ports). Basically, SSD offers less memory capacity, but has a much faster read and write speed than HDD. HDD gives you a large amount of memory. Therefore, SSDs are suitable for storing operating systems and applications, and HDDs are used to store videos, photos, and heavy games.
The parameters you need to pay attention to when buying a hard drive are:
- Disk Space: At least 128GB is required for an SSD, which is enough for you to hold the operating system and basic applications. HDD can be from 500GB to 1TB to comfortably save data. If you like speed and don’t have a lot of storage needs, a 500GB SSD should suffice.
- Read / write speed: 500MB / s is quite an attractive number, the higher it is, the better it is.
- Communication port: must be supported by the mainboard.
We can choose the drive SSD Kingston SNVS 500G NVMe M.2 for example.
Graphics Card (GPU)
Every computer requires a graphics card, which is a dedicated processor for processing image data. CPU AMD Ryzen 5 5600G already equipped with integrated graphics card is RX Vega 7, so the machine can operate without a discrete card. However, integrated graphics cards are usually only suitable for gaming needs at an average experience. If you want to play games with terrible graphics, 1080p resolution, you need a discrete graphics card.
If you decide to use a discrete graphics card in the first place, Don’t choose AMD CPUs with built-in GPUs. Except for the Intel CPU, the company always has an integrated GPU in the product.
- Memory storage: The current popular is 4GB. You will need up to 6GB and preferably 8GB to play the game with a good and stable experience.
- Size: You should focus on the form factor of the discrete card, look at the length, height and thickness. It is important that it fits the mainboard. If the card is too large, it can take up a lot of space and block other connections on your mainboard.
- TDP: Power requirements, this indicator will help you choose the right computer source. It is very dangerous if the power supply does not supply enough power to all components in the computer.
- Auxiliary power connector: Today’s mid-to-high-end video cards all require a PCIe auxiliary power connector (6 or 8 pin). This information should also be kept in mind when selecting a power supply that supports expansion.
- Gate: The connection port must have consistency between the graphics card and the monitor, the common types of connection ports today include VGA, DVI, HDMI, DP.
- Clock Speed and CUDA cores: Quite importantly, learn more about these two metrics.
- Memory type: Newer memory models offer faster speeds, GDDR5 is a popular choice.
In this section, the Asus PH-GTX 1660 video card is the product that I choose.
The power supply is responsible for supplying power to the components in the computer. The more powerful the computer, the more power the power supply requires. You should also choose a little extra just in case.
- Maximum capacity: The required power portion will usually be mentioned in the CPU and GPU specs. As an example of the 2 products I selected above, including CPU/65W and GPU/450W. As such, you should choose a source with capable of supplying at least 600W so that the PC can work stably. If you want more extra, go up to 700W.
- PCIe connector: As mentioned above, most mid-range graphics cards now require an auxiliary power connection, so make sure of this when purchasing power.
- Form: ATX is standard.
- Other notes: You refer to the article Guide to choose the right source, PSU.
To choose a case, the first thing you need to consider is choosing the right size for the design of the mainboard. In the case of the example above, we will choose the case M-ATX or ATX.
In addition, you also need to pay attention to the port on the surface, tempered glass material, the number of fans that can be installed and the beauty of the design. You should also purchase additional case-mounted cooling fans to optimize the computer’s cooling performance.
Thus, you have built a complete PC with components including CPU, mainboard, RAM, GPU, graphics card, power supply, hard drive and case. Hopefully with the guide of Thuthuatphanmem.vn, you have chosen the best products that best suit your needs.