Hello, hello everyone!
Every day receiving a little new knowledge will help us to understand more. And come to today’s article we will learn about how the battery works.
As you know, electricity has become a part of life, electricity plays a very important role and has a great influence on the development of the whole society. Without electricity, people will immediately have a ticket back to the stone age
Normally, we still use electricity directly through the electrical wiring system, which is the main source of electricity that we often use every day.
However, in some cases, for example, to prevent power failure, people often use the power source in batteries or accumulators…
Batteries appear a lot in modern life today, from phones, laptops and electronic devices with controls, it is almost necessary to use batteries.
So have you read somewhere about how the battery works? Why can electrical energy be stored in batteries? How it works…
I. The history of the birth and development of the battery
Do you believe that Batteries were invented in 150 BC?
It is not known how right or wrong, but according to scientists, around 150 BC, in Mesopotamia (Parthian culture) used a device called Baghdad.
The structure of Baghdad is actually very similar to the structure of a modern battery and can generate a current of 1.5 – 2V.
However, many scientists do not believe that this is the battery that mankind at that time invented to store electric current. They think that this is just a device used in religious ceremonies or for plating metal.
In 1780, Luigi Galvani – Italian biologist in an experiment with the “legs” of frogs and discovered that: when he touched a metal (conductive) instrument on a frog’s nerve, it would causing its legs to twitch.
He believes that this is animal electricity and he believes that it is the type of electricity that is stored in many things available in nature.
However, physicist Alessandro Volta does not think so, he thinks that it is the metal rod that causes the frog’s leg to twitch.
It was from here that a great debate took place and it only ended when Volta proved it through his experiments.
Volta tested his idea by overlaying alternating layers of Zinc and Copper. Each layer is separated by paper or cloth and soaked in a saline solution.
And surprisingly, the two ends of the copper and zinc rods produced an electric current. This experiment also laid the foundation for later battery development. And to commemorate this great invention, his name was taken as the symbol for the Voltage (Volt – the symbol is V, guys).
II. Battery structure and working principle
#first. Structure of the battery
The structure of the later batteries is no different from the one that Volta did in his experiments.
However, since the 1800s, scientists have improved and replaced chemical solutions with dry chemicals, but still have not changed its working principle.
Just like the 2 metal bars Zinc and Copper, with today’s batteries, the commonly used metals are Zinc and Lead to increase performance. The shell is made of zinc and the core is made of lead.
In addition, the salt solution is also replaced by various dry chemical substances.
#2. The principle of operation of the battery
Going back to Volta’s experiment, what happened in the experiment when the salt solution was poured in was later called the Oxidation-Reduction reaction.
The Zinc Bar is now oxidized, meaning it will lose electrons. At the surface of the copper rod, more electrons will be received (also known as the reduction process).
When connecting the two terminals of the Copper and Zinc bars together, there will be a flow of free electrons (from the Zinc bar will move through the Copper bar). That will create a difference in electrons => create a potential difference and generate an electric current.
And in reality, the copper pole will have the sign
+ and Zinc will bear the mark
This continuous movement of electrons and current generation will stop if chemical reactions stop. That also means that if you connect a light bulb that is connected by two terminals when the reaction occurs, the light will be on.
However, each battery has a limited amount of metal, so once this metal is almost completely oxidized, the battery will no longer be usable. These are single-use batteries, after the chemical reaction ends, the battery is also “dead”.
As for the rechargeable battery, it has been designed so that when an electric current is passed, it will reverse the redox process.
This means that the Electron from the Copper bar will move against the Zinc bar. And when all the electrons are moved, the battery is fully charged and we can continue to use it.
But that doesn’t mean the rechargeable battery will last forever. But over time, through the charges, the electrons can no longer keep the same amount as the original. When the electrons are exhausted, the battery’s shelf life will also end.
So, through this article, I believe you have a better understanding of nThe principle of operation of the battery then right?
Nowadays, batteries are used a lot in modern life, you don’t need to carry devices with messy wires anymore.
Batteries also contribute a lot to the conveniences of life, it is present in most of today’s modern devices, such as phones, laptops, control devices…. and also in cars, motorcycles and many other electronic devices.
Hope this article will be useful to you, don’t forget to share if you find this article useful for you!
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