One morning in January 1919, American soldiers sleeping in the village of Nizhnaya Gora were suddenly attacked by the Soviet Red Army, and a rare battle took place between the two sides.
Almost a year before the war, AmericaOn March 3, 1918, the Bolshevik government and Germany signed the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty, which allowed Russia to withdraw from World War I. After the United Kingdom and France sent troops to Russia.
The U.S., U.K., and France are worried virtue After Russia withdrew from the war, they could fully attack France, so they decided to support the White Army against the Bolsheviks and declared that they were ready to fight the Germans to the end. In addition, Britain, France, and the United States had previously delivered a large amount of cargo to the Russian Imperial Army, and they did not want these cargo to fall into the hands of the Bolsheviks.
In the summer of 1918, more than 5,000 American troops arrived at the northern port of Arkhangelsk RussiaApproximately 8,000 other U.S. troops have arrived in the Russian Far East to prevent the emergence of new geopolitical opponents, Japan, And then conducted military interventions against Russia.
By the autumn of 1918, the White Army had received support from foreign countries, mainly the United States and Canada, Advancing 300 kilometers south of Arkhangelsk, occupying the town of Shinkursk on the Vaga River, and deepening into the territory controlled by the Bolsheviks.
With three layers of barbed wire, dozens of cannons and machine gun positions, when the Bolsheviks failed to attack Shnkulsk in the autumn, Shnkulsk became a thorn in the Red Army command.
With the determination to retake Shinkulsk, the Red Army mobilized 3000 soldiers from the 18th Division of the 6th Army in January 1919 to take part in the offensive operations against 300 US troops and 900 White and Canadian troops.
With the support of the local militia, the Red Army launched an offensive from three aspects at the same time in the severe winter, without even having any reliable means of communication. General Alexander Zamoilo wrote in his memoirs that he had “two lives”.
The troops of the 18th Division secretly approached the town of Shinkulsk and surrounding villages where American soldiers and the White Army were stationed. In temperatures of -40°C, Red Army soldiers dragged heavy artillery to the deployment site.
They were ordered to put on a white coat on the snow and disguise themselves on the snow so that they could approach enemies within a radius of 100 m without being spotted.
On the morning of January 19, 1919, the Red Army suddenly attacked the village of Xiagora on the outskirts of Shinkulsk. The American soldiers sleeping on the bed were awakened by the sound of gunfire. When they ran into the street, they were shocked when they saw the white-clothed Red Army soldiers approaching.
The Red Army came to the impassable terrain with heavy artillery, which surprised the enemy. In this raid, approximately 40 American and Canadian soldiers were killed and 100 wounded.
“The snow is terrible and waist-deep. My tragic teammates were injured or killed, and we cannot help them because everyone must fight for survival,” U.S. Lieutenant Harry Mead said of the incident. Fight with the Red Army.
The Red Army planned to attack Shinkursk on January 24, but the White Army and American and Canadian troops fled the town and retreated to the nearby village of Vestavka. The Red Army soldiers entered Shnkulsk and collected 15 cannons, 60 machine guns and 2000 rifles. In addition, they captured a large food store in the town.
The battle of Shenkulsk not only caused the White Army and the American and Canadian forces to lose an important outpost, but was also considered to be the most disastrous failure of the US military’s military intervention in Russia.
The battle wiped out nearly one-third of the U.S. garrison in Shinkursk within a day, and their 8,000-strong expeditionary force was stationed in the Russian Far East and Siberia for 18 months, only 48 people were lost and 52 people were injured.
The defeat of the battle of Shenkulsk led to a decline in the morale of the U.S. military.Many U.S., U.K. and France Expressed their dissatisfaction because they did not want to die for a war that did not belong to them. This is considered to be one of the factors that prompted the United States, Britain and France to seriously consider the cost of sending troops to Russia and decided to withdraw their troops in 1920.
Ruan Jin (follow RBTH card)